A study of the various systems of animal physiology (e.g., muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiac, digestive, respiratory, renal). These themes will be covered in an integrative manner that includes analysis at molecular, cellular, systems, and organismal levels. An emphasis will be placed on the maintenance of homeostasis. Furthermore, a comparative approach will be taken to emphasize not only how the human body functions, but also how various animals have evolved similar physiological endpoints that can be compared in their structure and functional efficacy to the human body. Such an approach will allow an understanding of how physiology functions, what are its constraints and specializations, what aspects of physiology are integral to sustaining life, etc. Laboratory investigations will include studies of vertebrate muscle physiology and biochemistry and regulation of vertebrate cardiac activity, blood pressure and respiration. Laboratory experiments will involve the careful and humane use of live vertebrates as research models. Laboratories are scheduled for 4 to 5 hours each week.